The Effect of the Gracha Model on Developing the Cunning Thinking of the Students of the Technical Medical Institute in Physiology

  • Assist. Prof. Miaad Nadhum Rasheed Technical Medical Institute - Middle Technical University - Iraq
الكلمات المفتاحية: Gracha Model, Cunning Thinking, Technical Medical Institute, Physiology


The current research seeks to identify the effect of the Gracha model in developing skilled thinking among students of the Technical Medical Institute in Physiology, and to achieve the goal and hypothesis of the research, the researcher adopted the experimental method with partial control through two experimental and control groups. The researcher identified the research community with students of the Technical Medical Institute at Baghdad University, and due to the small size of the community, it was considered a community sample for the current research. In order to collect data and information and ensure the efficiency of the experimental design used, the researcher carried out a set of psychometric procedures, and after completing the application of the experiment, the researcher reached the following results:

  1. There is no clear effect of (Gracha) model on the development of skilled thinking among students of the experimental group in physiology among students of the medical institute.
  2. The experimental group that was studied on the Gracha model outperformed the control group that received the scientific material by the lecture method of Physiological Subject at the Technical Medical Institute.


1. Al-Ashqar, Faris Ratib (2011): Philosophy of Thinking and Theories in Learning, First Edition, Zahran for Publishing and Distribution, Amman.
2. Jaljul, Nasra (2013) Instruction Manual for Learning Styles Scale. Cairo: major libraries.
3. Al-Hijazi, Medhat Abd Al-Razzaq (2012): A Dictionary of Psychology Terms Arabic - English - Arabic, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ulmiah, Beirut.
4. Khalil Al-Harbi (2012): Building a tool for measuring the learning styles of university students using exploratory factor analysis. Umm Al-Qura University Journal for General Education, Volume (4), Issue (2).
5. Al-Khalili, Amal Abd al-Salam (2005): The Child and Thinking Skills, First Edition, Dar Al-Saffar for Printing and Publishing, Amman.
6. Daoud, Aziz Hanna and Anwar Hussein Abdul Rahman, 1990 AD, Curricula for Educational Research, Dar Al-Hikma for Printing, Publishing and Distribution, Baghdad.
7. Al-Zobaie, Abdul-Jalil and Al-Ghannam, Muhammad Ahmad, 1981, Research Methods in Education, Second Edition, Baghdad University Press.
8. Zaitoun, Hassan Hussein (2003) Teaching Thinking, A World of Books, Cairo.
9. Zaitoun, Ayesh Mahmoud, 1999 AD, Methods of Teaching Science, Third Edition, Dar Al Shorouk Publishing and Distribution, Amman, Jordan.
10. Salem Mahmoud Yahya (2012): Psychology of Meaning and Application, First Edition, Arab Group for Training and Publishing, Egyptian Book House for Publishing and Distribution, Cairo.
11. Al-Sorour, Nadia Hayel (2005): Teaching Thinking in School Curricula, Wael House, Amman.
12. Al-Shuwaiqi, Abu Zaid (2004): The preferred learning styles of secondary school students and their relationship to gender and achievement level. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Tanta University (33), number 1.
13. Al-Saffar, and Faih Muhammad Ali (2011): Skill and its relationship to cognitive preference and ability to solve problems among university students, PhD thesis (unpublished), College of Education, Ibn Al Haytham, University of Baghdad.
14. Damour, Muhammad Muslim Khalaf (2008): The relationship of learning styles prevailing among students of Damour universities in southern Jordan to academic achievement and self-efficacy, doctoral thesis, unpublished, University of Jordan, Amman. , Jordan.
15. Zahir, Khaled Salman (2009): The effect of using a generative learning strategy in addressing alternative perceptions of some mathematical concepts among eighth grade students (unpublished master's thesis), College of Education, Islamic University, Gaza.
16. Aziz and Hatem Jassim and Mahdi Maryam Khaled (2015): Methodology and Reflection, First Edition, Al-Radwan Publishing and Distribution House, Jordan.
17. Attia, Mohsen Ali (2010): Metacognitive Strategies for Reading Comprehension, Madar Al-Mankhil Publishing, Amman.
18. Odeh, Ahmad, 2002, Measurement and Evaluation in the Educational Process, Fifth Edition, Dar Al-Amal, Amman, Jordan.
19. Odeh, Ahmad and Malkawi, Fathi, 1987, Basics of Research in Education and Human Sciences, First Edition, Al-Manar Library, Zarqa, Jordan.
20. Mahmoud Salah El-Din Arafa (2006): Think Without Borders, Contemporary Educational Visions in Teaching and Learning Thinking, The World of Books for Publishing and Distribution, Cairo.
21. Nofal, Muhammad Bakr, Al-Rimawi, Mahmoud Odeh (2010): Practical Applications in the Development of Thinking in the Habits of Mind, Second Edition, Dar Al-Masirah for Publishing and Distribution, Amman.
22. Nofal, Muhammad Bakr, Muhammad Qasim Sifan (2011), Merging Thinking Skills in Academic Content, First Edition, Dar Al-Masirah, Jordan.
23. Yousef, Suleiman Abdel Wahid (2011): Individual Differences in Mental Operations, First Edition, Dar Al-Masirah for Publishing and Distribution, Amman.
Foreign sources
1. Gracha, AF (1996). Teaching with a Style: A Guide to Reinforcement through an Understanding of Teaching and Learning Methods, Pittsburgh: Alliance Publishers.
2. Bicol Y. Gursel, M, Sulak, H; Ertken, II; Yazıcı, E; Dolger, D; Aslan, wai; Buyukkarci, K. (2010). Validity and
3. A Reliability Study of the Grasha-Riechmann Scale of Student Education. International Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 5 (3(
4. Kumar, p. Kumar Smart, K. (2004). Evaluate the impact of teaching methods and information technology on students' learning styles. Journal of Issues in Media Science and Information Technology
5. Montgomery, SM & Groat, LN (1998). Student learning styles and their implications for teaching. (CRLT Presentation Papers, No. 10). Center for Research in Learning and Teaching, University of Michigan. Retrieved from http: //www/
6. Isaac, N, and Awang, M. (2017). The relationship of student learning styles to achievement in history. The
7. International Journal of Invention of the Social and Human Sciences, 4 (3(
8. Khaled R. Mukhtar A. Fawzi, M. Qasim A. Don, Y. Abdul Saqour, N. Bonagan, F. Mohiuddin A. Ghazali, S. Rusley, M. Juke, S. (2013). Learning styles and academic achievements among students of science and arts streams. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development. 2 (2(
9. Khan, J. Iqbal, M. (2016). Effects of learning style on achieving distance learners. dialogue. 11 (3(
10. Arthur, L. Costa & Bena, K. (2009) Habits of Mind Across the Curriculum Practical and Creative Strategies for Teachers Copyright © Association for Curriculum and Curriculum Development (ASCD(
11. Celtas, A. (2012) the effect of mathematical modeling on the level of creative thinking, The New Educational Review, 30 (4).
كيفية الاقتباس
Assist. Prof. Miaad Nadhum Rasheed. (2020). The Effect of the Gracha Model on Developing the Cunning Thinking of the Students of the Technical Medical Institute in Physiology. مجلة الفنون والأدب وعلوم الإنسانيات والاجتماع, (62), 416-430.